On 6th August 1945 the American bomber called Enola Gay dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima. Anyone within a km of the explosion was incinerated within seconds. Within minutes 70,000 people were dead. Those left alive were seriously burnt. The explosion was followed by a blast wave which destroyed 70,000 of the city’s 78,000 buildings. By 1950, the number of people killed by the bomb had gone up to 200,000 because of radiation poisoning from the bomb.
Why was the decision taken?
To bring a swift end to the war because they believed that Japan would never surrender and that It would cost an estimated 250,000 American lives to conquer Japan.
To show the USSR how strong America was
They had spent so much time and money producing the bomb they want to test it out
Japan was already pretty much defeated before the bomb had been dropped
Political changes between 1750 and 1900
1750 – King George had far fewer powers than previous monarchs, and the Parliament decided on all the laws. Local authorities didn’t play a huge part in people’s lives, only 2.7% of the population could vote.
1825 – People were calling for parliamentary reform and at a political meeting demanding reform, troops killed 11 people. Most new industrial cities couldn’t elect their own MPs.
1900 – The monarchy now has very little power. The parliament now included many more MPs from new towns and cities and less from rotten boroughs and the countryside. Parliament played a march larger part in people’s lives both from London and in their local area. Most men could now vote but women still couldn’t.
Why was Britain the first industrial nation – Britain was a peaceful country and after 1750 no wars were fought in Britain, this means that money, time and resources aren’t wasted in war and are instead used more productively to improve the country.
Britain had colonies overseas which provided Britain with the raw materials which couldn’t be found in Britain like cotton. The colonies also provided markets for Britain’s factory made goods, this brought more money into England so we could build more factories etc.
Britain had massive population growth which meant that there were more people to grow food, work in factories, and buy goods at the markets. It also made there a need for improved methods of production/ agriculture so that everyone could have what they needed.
Britain’s transport was very good which meant lots of people and raw materials could be moved around quickly
New agriculture techniques allowed farmers to grow more food (enclosure system) this allowed the extra money gained to be invested in transport and industrial improvements.
Britain was a rich country and so money could be invested in the development of new inventions and the building of factories
There were a lot of great thinkers and inventors who greatly improved machines and other things
Industrialisation – the movement of businesses from the domestic system to the factory system.
Domestic system – the main system of making goods before the industrial revolution where people worked in their homes or in small workshops. The people might be employed by a larger company which employed home workers in houses scattered around the countryside
Factory system – the main system of production during and after the industrial revolution, where people worked in large industrial factories with long hours, low wages, and bad working conditions.